Holography for Beginners
- 1 What is a hologram?
- 2 How little money/bother do I need to make one?
- 3 What is the cheapest way to make a hologram?
- 4 Are the chemicals dangerous?
- 5 What sort of time commitment is there for making a hologram?
- 6 When can I have the lights 'on' during the procedure of making a hologram?
- 7 What are the different kinds of holograms?
- 8 What is the single most important factor when making a hologram?
- 9 How Does a LASER work?
- 10 Can I use a cheap red laser pointer to make holograms?
- 11 Can I use a Green Laser Pointer to make holograms?
- 12 Where are the Reference and Object beams in a Single Beam Reflection Hologram?
- 13 Some uses for Everyday Items in holography
- 14 What is a Scratch-O-Gram?
- 15 What Books are Available for Holography?
What is a hologram?
Most commonly, a hologram is a 3-D Picture. It looks like a window into the original scene from which it was created.
How little money/bother do I need to make one?
You can make your first hologram with about 2 hours of set up and about $100.
What is the cheapest way to make a hologram?
Laser Pointer Holography is the cheapest way to make a hologram.
Also check out Integraf's Instructions for making a hologram.
Are the chemicals dangerous?
While some of the processing chemicals can be dangerous, processing schemes are available, such as JD-3, that can be used in elementary schools.
If you want more information on the hazards of a particular chemical you can easily find it by Googling "MSDS" and the name of the chemical. This will provide you avenues to download the Material Safety Data Sheet for that particular chemical. (ie. MSDS Metol)
Bear in mind that many of these sheets make slightly hazardous chemicals sound much more frightening than they really are. For practical recommendations on holographic chemical usage there's no substitute for asking on the Holography Forum.
What sort of time commitment is there for making a hologram?
You can make a hologram in about 2 hours the first time. Once you have some experience you can set up, expose and develop in under an hour.
When can I have the lights 'on' during the procedure of making a hologram?
Once the emulsion has become insensitive to to light. For Silver Halide holograms this is after the hologram is bleached. For Dichromated Gelatin holograms this is after the fixing and rinsing steps.
What are the different kinds of holograms?
What is the single most important factor when making a hologram?
For simple holograms the required stability can be achieved by making sure that the plate and object touch and that there is no motion or vibration in the room during the exposure. For more complex set-ups involving a beamsplitter, all of the components after the beamsplitter need to be stable to within 1/4 of a fringe. Since fringe spacings range from about 600 to 2000 lines per mm the stability requirements can be quite high and involve building a Vibration Isolation Table/Bench.
Pulse holography negates the need for stability but a suitable laser is expensive and dangerous to set up.
How Does a LASER work?
For a simple introduction to lasers read How Do LASERs work?.
Can I use a cheap red laser pointer to make holograms?
Yes! Almost any of them will work to some degree. If you take the beam and spread it through a lens (or remove the built-in collimating lens to produce a spread beam) and the illumination looks uniform and does not have black lines in it you can probably use it to make a hologram. The Infiniter 200 is a common choice because many have had success with it.
The batteries in a red laser pointer don't last very long. It is quite common for holographers to cut the barrel off the pointer and wire up D-cell batteries in order for the laser to remain at full power longer.
Can I use a Green Laser Pointer to make holograms?
So far they seem to be unusable. And, some can be damaged if left on too long. But, by all means give it a try. Red pointers were thought unstable for some time but everyone was proved wrong.
Where are the Reference and Object beams in a Single Beam Reflection Hologram?
Single Beam Reflection (SBR) holograms are actually made with two beams. In a SBR Hologram the light travels to the film and we will call this light B1B2. Some of this light travels through the film. This is just the B2 part of the B1B2 light. It illuminates and reflects off the object back to the film. This is the object beam. This B2 light interferes with the B1 part of the original B1B2 within the film thickness. This creates a standing wave pattern thus the fringes or hologram. So there really are actually two beams used to create the hologram in a Single Beam Hologram.
Some uses for Everyday Items in holography
Click here for Everyday Items that can save you money in holography!
What is a Scratch-O-Gram?
A Scratch-O-Gram is a hand drawn hologram. It works by reflecting light and ficusing it from a curved scratch to a point.
What Books are Available for Holography?
See the Books section.